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What is Lyme Disease? With more than 300,000 cases diagnosed each year, Lyme Disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. Caused by the bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi, the early signs and symptoms of Lyme Disease include fever, chills, headache, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, and swollen lymph nodes. People often think they have the flu. One of the best indicators that the problem is Lyme Disease is the distinctive rash that is caused by the tick bite. Sometimes the rash looks like a “bull’s eye” but most of the time, the rash is simply a red circle. Left untreated, or in its chronic state, Lyme Disease includes symptoms of fatigue, restless sleep, aching joints or muscles, pain or swelling in joints, decreased short-term memory or ability to concentrate, and speech problems.
Exercise can do wonders for your mind, but it can be hard to work out on bad mental health days. Here’s how to keep moving when you’re struggling.
In the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), these conditions were termed “culture-bound syndromes”; the fifth edition of the DSM (DSM-5) includes them under “Cultural Concepts of Distress.” This updated approach is intended to more accurately characterize cultural influences on the expression and experience of mental disorders that can manifest in anybody, increasing relevance to clinical practice. Some previously included conditions have been removed in the new manual, whereas others have been added or maintained as examples of culturally colored conditions. Although DSM-5 deemphasizes specific conditions in favor of a broader approach to cultural concepts, both those examples included and not included in the manual remain relevant to practice, given that they’re still reported in many cultures around the world.
Contemporary psychiatric genetics has come a long way. While the strong familial and hereditary basis of psychiatric illness has been known for almost a century, buttressed by numerous family, twin, and adoption studies, understanding the molecular underpinnings has proven to be the hard part. The last decade of the 20th century witnessed a surge in genetic linkage and association studies. The former attempted to narrow down chromosomal regions likely to harbor vulnerability genes by studying samples of families with several affected members. The latter were typically focused on comparing the frequency of genetic variants in presumed candidate genes between samples of affected cases and unaffected controls. Alas, these approaches did not bring about the much-desired gain of knowledge, let alone the highly antcipated breakthroughs.
The Mental Welfare Commission today published its first ever report looking specifically at the care, treatment and support of people with borderline personality disorder (BPD), often known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD).
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